1938 Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands
by P. Ann van B. Stafford, April 2017
The 1938 Oxford University Expedition to the Cayman Islands (April 17 to August 27) was the first natural history survey of all three islands, Grand Cayman, Little Cayman and Cayman Brac, and reports were written about the flora, fauna, geology and wetlands. The founding study of Cayman’s butterflies was done then by entomologists C. Bernard Lewis and Gerald H. Thompson, both Oxford students, (Carpenter and Lewis 1943) and gave a good indication of the number of species on each island at that time.
The expedition was in acceptance of a long-standing invitation by Cayman Islands Commissioner Allen Wolsey Cardinall (1934-1941) to make a biological survey of the islands. Lewis was a Rhodes scholar from the United States, who later became Director of the Institute of Jamaica in Kingston. The identification & documentation of specimens were delayed by of the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
The Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) collected and observed were fully discussed and published in 1943 by Carpenter and Lewis. (G.D. Hale Carpenter, Hope Department of Entomology, University Museum, Oxford and C.B. Lewis, Museum of the Institute of Jamaica).
Places: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman
Transportation: CIMBOCO, truck, motor boat, catboats, HMS Orion
Accommodation: Headquarters in George Town
Animals: Reptiles – Lizards and Iguanas
Animals: Reptiles – Geckos
Animals: Reptiles – Snakes
Animals: Insects – Dragonflies, Damselflies
Animals: Insects – Cicadas
Animals: Insects – Beetles
Animals: Insects – Bees, Ants, Wasps
Animals: Insects – Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)
Animals: Insects – Moths (Lepidoptera)
Animals: Insects – Flies (Diptera) – Mosquitoes
Animals: Insects – other
Poem of farewell by Leila E. Ross
Return to the UK
The party comprised:-
W. Gemmel Alexander (Brasenose College) – Leader and Organiser
C. Bernard Lewis (Wadham College) – Biologist (Rhodes Scholar from the United States) (lewisi)
Gerald H. Thompson (St. Edmund Hall) – Biologist (thompsoni)
W. Neil Paten (Magdalen College) – Marine Biologist
Wilfred Kings Lawrence Sheriff School, Rugby – Botanist (kingsii)
Allen Wolsey Cardinall – Commissioner of the Cayman Islands, from 1934 to 1941
Joseph Rodriguez (Roddie) Watler – Police Inspector, truck owner
Bentley (Benny) Ross – boat owner – the ‘BRAVO’
Urban Myles – cook
Norris Jackson – assistant
Pershing Merren – assistant
Sam Ebanks – assistant
John Howard – assistant
Ira Thompson – Commissioner’s chauffeur
Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands 1938 – homemade equipment, the still – for recovering waste alcohol. (C. B. Lewis photo 1938). Alcohol was needed for the preservation of specimens.
Sam Ebanks, Gerald Thompson and John Howard – off to work – Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands (C. B. Lewis photo 1938)
John Howard, (C. B. Lewis photo 1938)
Urban Myles, 97 years old. He was the cook on the 1938 Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands.
They camped on the little schooner ‘Meritwell’ in North Sound for one week
and used a motor boat and canoe for their biological observations and collections.
Photo: Ann Stafford, Mar. 3, 2007.
Gemmel Alexander – 1938 Oxford Expedition Leader and Organiser,had his 20th. birthday in Kingston, Jamaica, on his way to Cayman. Caymanian Compass, March 15, 2004.
Liverpool, UK; Kingston, Jamaica; Grand Cayman (population:4,500); Cayman Brac (population: 1,500); Little Cayman (population: 64).
Grand Cayman map
Grand Cayman, Wilfred Kings, botanist: May 13 – 17 and June 11 – August 10.
Cayman Brac, Wilfred Kings, botanist: May 18 – May 28.
Little Cayman, Wilfred Kings, botanist: May 28 – June 11
Ship from Liverpool, UK March 22, (14 days voyage) to Kingston, Jamaica, CIMBOCO (motor boat) from Kingston to Grand Cayman, truck, motor boat, catboats.
CIMBOCO, Cayman Islands Motor Boat Company, was the first locally built, motorized sailing ship in Cayman. CIMBOCO was Cayman’s connection to the world: regular travel, shipping, parcel post, providing a reliable supply of staple & exotic foods, such as flour, sugar, fruit & even ice! “Her launching in May 1927 was a great day in the history of the Cayman Islands,” said Miss Annie Huldah Bodden, secretary until 1947.
Launching of the CIMBOCO, May 1927, photo: N.L Booker, father of Aarona Booker Kohlman, who is the author of ‘UNDER TIN ROOFS Cayman in the 1920’s’ (1993).
Catboats: unloading cargo stamp $1.60, (release date Aug. 31, 2011).
CIMBOCO and HMS Orion from Grand Cayman to Kingston, Jamaica.
Expedtion Headquarters in George Town – Althea’s cottage
Rum Point – tents
South Sound – Czar Hurlston’s house
‘Oxford House’ (photo: Ann Stafford, Nov.30, 2007). The team stayed in Czar Hurlston’s house on South Sound. It was subsequently moved to South Church St, its current location. The front porch was added.
REPTILES: Lizards and Iguanas
Eastern Grand Cayman Blue-throated Anole – Anolis conspersus lewisi (endemic)
The endemic Blue Iguana – Cyclura lewisi, Grand Cayman’s largest native land animal, is named after Bernard Lewis.
Blue Iguana – Cyclura lewisi, Endangered Grand Cayman endemic, named after biologist C. Bernard Lewis, Rhodes Scholar, who took a male and female to the British Museum of Natural History, collected during the 1938 Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands. Photo: Ann Stafford, on the Woodland Trail, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Grand Cayman, Apr. 22, 2012.
Blue Iguana – Cyclura lewisi. Photo: Ann Stafford, on the Woodland Trail, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Grand Cayman, Aug.18, 2013.
Grand Cayman Blue Iguana – Cyclura lewisi. Photo: Ann Stafford, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Grand Cayman, March 3, 2011.
Sister Islands Rock Iguana (Lesser Cayman Islands Rock Iguana) – Cyclura nubila caymanensis, subspecies endemic to Little Cayman and Cayman Brac.
Ground Gecko, Cayman Least Gecko – Sphaerodactylus argivus
This Antillean species is endemic to the Cayman Islands (Henderson and Powell 2009).
Ground Gecko, Wood Lizard – Spherodactylus argivus lewisi, Grand Cayman endemic subspecies. It probably occurs island-wide, including the satellite islands. It has been found under rocks at the bottom of sink holes, in the mouths of caves on a limestone ridge (south of Old Man Bay), and in bromeliads (Seidel and Franz 1994) .
On Little Cayman, the subspecies bartschi probably occurs island-wide, but most known specimens were collected near the beach at South Town and at Tarpon Lake (Seidel and Franz 1994); it also occurs in Owen Island.
Cayman Brac, the subspecies argivus is found island-wide (Schwartz and Henderson 1991).
Water Snake – Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisi, Grand Cayman endemic subspecies
Grand Cayman Water Snake – Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisi, found by Fred Burton and photographed by Courtney Platt. Photo: Ann Stafford, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Sept. 21, 2003.
Grand Cayman Water Snake – Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisi, found by Fred Burton and photographed by Courtney Platt. Photo: Ann Stafford, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Sept. 21, 2003.
Grand Cayman Water Snake – Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisi, found by Fred Burton and photographed by Lois Blumenthal. Photo: Ann Stafford, Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, Sept. 21, 2003.
INSECTS: DRAGONFLIES, DAMSELFLIES (Order: Odonata)
INSECTS: CICADAS (Order: Hemiptera – True Bugs)
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha (Cicadas, Leafhoppers)
Diceroprocta caymanensis Davis, 1939
Diceroprocta cleavesi Davis, 1930
Diceroprocta ovata Davis, 1939
Each island has its own endemic Cicada species –
Grand Cayman Cicada – Diceroprocta cleavesi
Little Cayman Cicada – Diceroprocta caymanensis
Cayman Brac Cicada – Diceroprocta ovata
The species are morphologically very similar, differing principally in their colouration, and they are allied to D. biconia from Cuba.
Photo: Ann Stafford, Grand Cayman, Aug. 13, 2005
Cicadas are locally called ‘crickets’ . The male Cicadas’ ‘song’ is a high-pitched buzzing sound. Female Cicadas lay their eggs in the bark of a twig. When the eggs hatch, the nymphs drop to the ground. They burrow with their front legs, which are enlarged for tunneling, and they live underground, feeding on roots. When they are ready for their fifth and final molt, they dig their way out to the surface and climb a short distance on to a plant to which they anchors themselves. The winged adults emerge in July and August, leaving the empty nymph case attached to the plant.
Adult Cicada, just emerged from its nymph exoskeleton. Photo: Ann Stafford, Grand Cayman, Aug. 5, 2002.
Davis, William T. 1939 Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 47, no. 3, pages 207-213
Photo: Wallace Platts, Cayman Brac, May 1, 2011.
INSECTS: BEETLES: (Order: Coleoptera)
Family: Carabidae – Ground Beetles
Family: Staphylinidae – Rove Beetles
Family: Scarabaeidae – Chafers and Dung Beetles
Family: Cerambycidae – Long-horned Beetles or Timber Beetles
Styloleptus lewisi (Fisher) 1948, (synonym: Leptostylus lewisi)
Eburia caymanensis Fisher 1941
Eburia concisispinis Fisher 1941
Eburia lewisi Fisher 1948
Derancistrus (Elateropsis) caymanensis (Fisher) 1941
INSECTS: BEES, ANTS, WASPS: (Order Hymenoptera)
Caribbean Cicada Killer Wasp, Mangrove Giant Wasp – Sphecius hogardii
INSECTS: BUTTERFLIES: (Order Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)
Cayman Brown Leaf Butterfly – Memphis verticordia danielana – Cayman Islands endemic subspecies
Cayman Brown Leaf Butterfly – Memphis verticordia danielana larvae on their pseudospurs they made on their larval food plant Wild Cinnamon – Croton nitens, Ann Stafford, Grand Cayman, Nov. 17, 2009.
Cayman Brown Leaf Butterfly – Memphis verticordia danielana larva securing its rolled-leaf shelter with silk, on larval food plant Wild Cinnamon – Croton nitens, Ann Stafford, Grand Cayman,Sept. 21, 2010.
The endemic Pygmy Blue Butterfly – Brephidium exilis thompsoni Carpenter & Lewis 1943 is named after Gerald Thompson. He discovered it on June 23, 1938 in English Sound (named after T.M. Savage English), a lagoon off North Sound.
Cayman Pygmy Blue butterfly – Brephidium exilis thompsoni, Grand Cayman endemic subspecies named after Gerald Harvey Thompson, 1938 Oxford University biology student.
Photo: R. R. Askew, Jan. 19, 2008
ANNALS OF THE CARNEGIE MUSEUM Vol.XXIX p.392-394
Carpenter & Lewis 1943:
This tiny butterfly is indeed limited in its distribution for it was not found outside of an area of about fifty square yards, on the edge of a secluded lagoon, known as English Sound, lying to the east of and off of the Great Sound. The vegetation of this area is low, but not unusual, and is typical of such situations which are numerous on the island. No early stages were found.
English Sound is a very shallow lagoon off North Sound, Grand Cayman, where Grand Cayman’s Pygmy Blue butterfly – Brephidium exilis thompsonii was discovered by Bernard Lewis and Gerald Thompson in 1938. English Sound is not named on maps, but was the locality of property of naturalist T. M. Savage English, who resided in Grand Cayman from late 1910 to 1914.
Naturalist Thomas Mylius Savage English lived in Grand Cayman between late 1910 and 1914. He owned property in the Cayman Kai area. This shallow lagoon, English Sound, is named after him, but it is not named on maps. The location of his dock can be seen in the centre of this photo.
Photo: Kayaker James Macfee June 18, 2008
Butterflies of the Cayman Islands 2008 by R.R. Askew and P.A. van B. Stafford 2008
This book includes records from the
1938 Oxford University Expedition to the Cayman Islands and
1975 Joint Royal Society – Cayman Islands Government Expedition to Little Cayman
INSECTS: MOTHS (Order Lepidoptera)
Family: Sphingidae – Sphinx or Hawk Moths
INSECTS: FLIES (Order Diptera)
Family: Culicidae – Mosquitoes
Family: Psychodidae, SubFamily: Phlebotominae, Sandflies (Luyzomyia) ?
Black Widow Spiders Order: Araneae, Family: Theridiidae – Comb-footed Spiders)
Latrodectus mactans – Southern Black Widow Spider – GC and LC
unidentified species – GC and CB (The Cayman Islands Natural History and Biogeography book p. 310, Chapter 16. Terrestrial invertebrates (other than insects) of the Cayman Islands by M. V. Hounsome).
Black Widow Spider, with egg sac, found by Carla Reid, Grand Cayman, May 2, 2003
Avibase – Bird Checklists of the World – Cayman Islands:
History of Ornithology in the Cayman Islands:
1880’s C. B. C. Cory (1857-1921), a wealthy amateur ornithologist and founder member of the American Ornithologist’s Union, was the first to study Cayman’s avifauna. He described 13 new species of landbirds. All but one, the Grand Cayman Thrush, were later reclassified as endemic subspecies (Bangs 1916).
1889 Charles J. Maynard first reported the two sulids as a single new species, later named as two:
Red-footed Booby on Little Cayman, and Brown Booby on Cayman Brac.
1892 C. B. C. Cory’s checklist of 55 species, 30 of them breeding.
Late 1910 – 1914 Thomas Mylius Savage English, naturalist, lived on Grand Cayman. He did not see the endemic Grand Cayman Thrush (Turdus ravidus) until his third year on the island.
1911 P. R. Lowe published a checklist of 75 species, 40 of them breeding.
1904 – 1938 Avian collectors visited from time to time. Their specimens were housed in various museums:
Chicago, New York, Washington, Boston (Harvard), London (Tring) and Baton Rouge (Louisiana).
1938 C. Bernard Lewis was the last person to record seeing the Grand Cayman Thrush, which became extinct.
‘The beautiful Grand Cayman Thrush is extinct. The thrush was relatively common when first described in the 1880s, but was rare by the turn of the 19th century, and the last report came in 1938. It is unclear why this species went extinct, although habitat conversion, as well as hurricanes, have been blamed. This thrush was dark gray with a white belly, and dark, graduated tail with white tail corners; the bill and legs were bright red. The white-tipped tail, largely grayish plumage and red bare parts all suggest a close relationship with the Caribbean endemic Red-legged Thrush (Turdus plumbeus). Very little is known about this thrush as it was gone before much of the Caribbean was explored.’
Thrushes, © Princeton University Press/ illustration by Ren Hathway
Grand Cayman Thrush on Cayman Islands 1/4 d (1/4 penny) = one farthing, stamp, June 5, 1969, when the Cayman Islands currency was British pounds, shillings and pence.
Grand Cayman Thrush – Turdus ravidus, GC endemic, is extinct. This was the only Cayman Islands endemic bird species, as opposed to subspecies.
Grand Cayman Thrush on Cayman Islands 1/4 cent stamp, Sept. 8, 1970, after the Cayman Islands currency changed to the Cayman Islands Dollar from British pounds, shillings and pence.
Grand Cayman Thrush on Cayman Islands 1 cent coin, currently in use.
W. Neil Paten (Magdalen College) was the Marine Biologist. (He was killed in World War II.)
Map of North Sound (the Great Sound), Grand Cayman and the barrier reef.
Vidal Cay (named after survey ship HMS Vidal), off Barkers, West Bay, is also known as Barkers Cay. It was the site of the original Stingray City, about 12 ft deep. Stingray City sandbar is the location of the current shallow, popular, Stingray City. Fisherman’s Rock can be seen as a pimple on the horizon from the southern area of North Sound, and is a useful landmark near the Main Channel through the reef.
Much of Gemmel Alexander’s work (the 19 year old Team Leader) was carried out in conjunction with Neil Paten, in North Sound, inside the reef, examining and collecting specimens from the spongy, Turtle Grass–covered bottom (Thalassia testudinum). They camped on the little schooner, the ‘Meritwell’, in North Sound for one week, and used a motor boat, operated by Benny Ross, and canoe for their biological observations and collections. Urban Myles was the cook.
Ford’s Lagoon is probably English Sound, (neither are marked on any maps), named after Thomas Mylius Savage English who live in Cayman for about 3 years (late 1910-1914). It is a very shallow lagoon, with a narrow entrance, off Little Sound, south of Rum Point.
Jackson Point rock-pool, SW of George Town. Neil collected from the rock-pools on April 23 and 26, 1938.
Neil had a lot of special requirements. He ran out of alcohol to preserve specimens, because they had done so much collecting, more than expected. They set up a still to make their own alcohol, in the garden of the house in George Town that was their headquarters.
The Cap Pilar , a 3-masted square rigged French Barquentine (Schooner Barque), owned and captained by Adrian Seligman (1909-2003), nearing the conclusion of its two year round the world voyage, visited Grand Cayman in June, on its way from Montego Bay, Jamaica (May), to New York (July). The Cap Pilar had a marine biologist on board, with equipment from the British Museum. W. Gemmel Alexander, Oxford Expedition Team Leader, cabled the British Museum to request the transfer of equipment from the Cap Pilar, in George Town harbour, to the Oxford Expedition. Permission was granted.
The purpose of the Cap Pilar’s two-year round the world voyage, begun in September 1936, captained by Adrian Seligman, then of Wimbledon, England, was partly adventure and partly to collect plants for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
The original botanist on the Cap Pilar was A. F. Roper, but when the ship reached South Africa on its outward journey, his place was taken by C.M. Maggs, then a Horticulturalist at the Kirstenbosch Botanical Garden, Cape Town, South Africa. The Cap Pilar visited Australia and after making collections on various Pacific Islands (including the Galapagos) and at Panama, made a final stop at Grand Cayman, where a few plants and seeds were collected.
The Cap Pilar set sail from Grand Cayman on June 23, 1938 and arrived in New York on July 12, 1938. They were upstaged by Howard Hughes, who had just flown around the world nonstop and was being given a ticker-tape reception up Broadway.
Wilfred Kings was invited to join the Oxford University Biological Expedition to the Cayman Islands by Gemmel Alexander on March 21, 1938 in the capacity of Botanist, as their Botanist was unable to join the Expedition at last moment.
Kings saw Mr Alston at the British Museum (Natural History), explained the situation, and that he was not a Specialist in any capacity. They were satisfied that he should go merely as a Collector.
Mr Charles Elton and Dr Hobby in a interview at the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford, were also willing for Kings to work in that capacity.
Lawrence Sheriff School, Rugby, Governors granted Kings a leave of absence for the term, where he was the Geography Master. Kings eventually joined the party in Grand Cayman on May 13, 1938.
The Collection, as far as the Flowering Plants and Ferns were concerned, was almost entirely in duplicate.
George Town area – beach, bluff and pasture lands
East End – beach and bluff
West Bay – beach
South Sound – beach and bluff, mainly along ‘Leg and Knee Road’
East End – inland to the swampy Savannah Land
Governor’s Creek and Sound
Batabano – pasture land
North Side – beach, bluff, Forest Glen, Cedar Cliff, Malportas Pond, Round Cay Pond, Savage English’s Cistern, Rum Point
Old Man Bay
North East Coast – from Old Man Bay to Roger Wreck
Frank Sound Bridge
George Town Barcadere
West Bay – North West Point, Mount Pleasant
Pedro Castle and Newlands
Cayman Brac localities visited:
Cotton Tree Land, West End
Across the Island from Stakes Bay to the North Side with its abrupt Undercut Cliff and sandy coastal strip, with broken coral on the coastline.
Along the NE to Spot Bay and on the high bluff to the North East Point Lighthouse
Little Cayman localities visited, there were no roads on the Island:
South Town wide strip of coast land at the Western end – most collecting was done here.
Track from South Town to SW of Bloody Bay
North coast to Jackson
‘Cross the Land Road’ to South Hole Sound
Extreme East End was visited by boat.
Link to List of plants by Collector – Kings, W.
on Missouri Botanical Garden website, Tropicos.org:
Encylia kingsii Orchid (synonym Epidendrum kingsii), named after Wilfred Kings, biologist on the 1938 Oxford Expedition, June 7, Jackson, Little Cayman.
Encyclia kingsii (C.D. Adams) Nir, Lindleyana 9(3): 147. 1994.
The illustration (link) shows the shape of the lip, petal and sepal.
Encyclia kingsii Cayman Islands Orchid stamps issue 2005.
Encyclia kingsii and Banana Orchid (Myrmecophila thomsoniana var. thomsoniana) on Shake Hand tree (Xylosma bahamense). Photo: P. Ann van B. Stafford, East End, Grand Cayman, June 24, 2007. Flora of the Cayman Islands by George R. Proctor, 2012, p.201, 206 & 319.Grand Cayman, June 24, 2007.
Encyclia kingsii (= Epidendrum kingsii), ORCHIDACEAE, from Cayman Brac, in a private collection in Grand Cayman. P. Ann van B. Stafford, July 2, 2010.
Thomas Mylius Savage English’s Cistern (the circular one). Photo: C. Bernard Lewis, North Side, Grand Cayman, 1938.
Wilfred Kings hoped to obtain specimens of Fresh Water Sponges for Mr Burton of the British Museum, as none had been recorded from the Cayman Islands. The only possible specimen, which might have proved to be an alga, was found in this cistern, which had not been used since 1917 when the house was destroyed by a hurricane.
In 1930 Leila Ross-Shier (nee McTaggart) composed a song she called “Beloved Isle Cayman” and for many years it was regarded as the unofficial national song. It was not until 1993 when it became the official national song when the Cayman Islands Coat of Arms, Flag and National Song Law were passed. She was the mother of Benny Ross, boat owner and driver.
She wrote a poem of farewell to the Oxford team in C. Bernard Lewis’s copy of the book Life and Adventures in the West Indies, by Vaquero, originally published in 1914, which it in the Cayman Islands National Archive.
Oxford University Cayman Islands Biological Expedition
by Leila E. Ross
August 18, 1938
It seems so unworthy to tell your worth,
For you are the very salt of the earth,
Messrs. Alexander, Thompson, Neil, Lewis and Kings,
We wish you the best of all good things.
You have shared our hardships, and our joys,
Grown friendly with our girls and boys;
You have killed mosquitoes, butterflies caught
And wonderful things with your hands have wrought.
We wish you “Godspeed” as home you go
Starting out on the good ship “CIMBOCO”;
May you find your loved ones happy and well,
Good news of our isle be able to tell.
But we hope that sometime soon you’ll come
Again, to visit our island home,
For we have grown so used to you, you know,
We shall very much miss you, when you go.
Return to the UK
Types and paratypes are held in South Kensington Natural History Museum, London, the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford, London Zoo and American Zoos.
Aug. 31, 1938. Quote from The Telegraph, 31.8.38 under the heading GREEN TURTLES AND IGUANAS ‘Animals and reptiles rarely, if ever, seen in Europe, were landed in Liverpool today on the return, after a six month absence, of members of the Oxford University expedition to the Cayman Islands in the West Indies…….some of the specimens will shortly be seen at the London Zoo, which is to have the choice of the collection………’
The collection included 19 iguanas or spine lizards up to four feet in length, two green turtles, four hawksbill turtles, 16 land turtles, several lizards and land crabs, 27 black snakes and nine wood snakes as well as spiders, scorpions and centipedes.
Little Cayman is seldom mentioned in entomological literature. The 1938 Oxford University Biological Expedition spent thirteen days on the island and reports on the resulting collection deal with Odonata (Fraser, 1943), water-bugs (Hungerford, 1940), Nemoptera (Banks, 1941), cicadas (Davis, 1939), Carabidae (Darlington, 1947), Cerambycidae (Fisher, 1941, 1948), butterflies (Carpenter and Lewis, 1943) and Sphingidae (Jordan, 1940). During the 1975 expedition, insects of all orders were studied, over a period of about five weeks, and many additions will eventually be made to the island’s species list. At present, however, identification of the insects collected has, with the exception of the butterflies which have been considered separately, proceeded in the majority of cases as far as the family level. Application of the family names for the most part follows Borror and DeLong (1966). In this paper the general characteristics of the insect fauna are described.
The Cayman Islands Natural History and Biogeography
M.A. Brunt & J.E. Davies / Editors, 1994
Adams, C. Dennis 1972 Flowering Plants of Jamaica (Reader in Botany at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
Bradley, P.E and Rey-Millet, Y-J. 2013 Birds of the Cayman Islands
Kings, Wilfred September 1938 Report on the Botanical Collections from Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman
Lewis, C. Bernard, Photographic Collection 1938. Cayman Islands National Archive Accession No. 414 B.